<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <meta http-equiv="Content-Style-Type" content="text/css"> <title>CMR Questionnaires: Family Reunification Directive: Hungary</title> <meta name="Author" content="webmaster CMR"> <meta name="Company" content="CMR Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen"> <meta name="Subject" content="documentatie"> <meta name="Keywords" content="migratie migratierecht vreemdeling vreemdelingencirculaire"> <meta name="Generator" content="Cocoa HTML Writer"> <meta name="CocoaVersion" content="824.23"> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/cmr.css" id="thecss"> <script type="text/javascript" src="/csschange.js"></script> </head> <body><a NAME="TOP"></a> <map name="banner"> <area shape="rect" COORDS="0, 0, 700, 65" title="Homepage CMR" href="http://www.ru.nl/rechten/CMR"> <area shape="rect" COORDS="0, 65, 350, 113" title="Homepage Rechten" href="http://www.ru.nl/rechten"> <area shape="rect" COORDS="350, 65, 700, 113" title="Homepage RU" href="http://www.ru.nl"> </map> <a href="/gif/banner.cmr.gif"> <img src="/gif/banner.cmr.gif" usemap="#banner" ismap border=0></a> <table border=0> <tr> <td colspan=2><font size=2 face=><a href="/CMR">Documentation Database</a>: </td> <td><font size=2><a href="../../">Questionnaires</a>: <a href="../">Family Reunification Directive 2003/86/EC</a> <br><b>Hungary</b></td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr size=1 noshade align=left></td></tr> <tr> <td width="120">Subject</td> <td width=80></td> <td colspan=2><font size=2>Comparative study on the implementation of the <b>Family Reunification Directive</b> <a href="../family.reunification.directive.pdf" target="_blanc" title="Text of Directive in new window">2003/86/EC</a> in (25) Member States</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2>Data from <b>other</b> countries</td> <td colspan=2><a href="../other/">Go to Questionnaire</a> (with links to the answers of all other countries)</td> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2>This Form</td> <td><b>Data by Hungary</b> (12/03/2007)</font> <ul>Go to: <li><a href="#A">Section A</a> General questions <li><a href="#B">Section B</a> Questions on specific provisions <li><a href="#C">Section C</a> Final questions <li><a href="#D">Section D</a> Table on transposition </ul></td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr color=red></td></tr> <tr> <td>Section </td> <td>Question</td> <td>Answer</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr color=red></td></tr> <!=PART A =!> <tr> <td colspan=3><font color=blue><a NAME="A">A. General</a></font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a name="A1">A.1</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Has the Directive been implemented in your country? If so, please add the references and the texts of relevant legislative and administrative measures and the dates they entered into force.</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td><b>A</b>: There is no direct transposing rule of the Family reunification Directive. In principle accession presupposed the transposal of the acquis, in practice it is a gradual - still ongoing - process. Transposition is achieved by incorporating the Directive's provision in a wide array of legislative acts, of which the most important are the following: <ul> <li>The Act XXXIX of 2001 on entry and residence of foreigners in Hungary (hereinafter: AlienA), is most relevant. Its modified provisions (by Act XXIX of 2004) entered into force on 1st May 2004: Art 95 (2) a.) refers directly to the Family Reunification Directive. A further amendment by Act XLVI of 2005 has introduced most of the rules on family reunification with effect of 1 January 2006. (Hereinafter: AlienA) <li>Its implementing provisions are incorporated in the Government Decree No. 170/2001 (IX. 26.) On the Implementation of Act XXXIX of 2001 On the Entry and Stay of Foreigners (Hereinafter: AlienD) <li>The actual text of the Government Decree No.172 of 2001, 26 September on procedural rules of asylum and documents issued for temporary protected persons (hereinafter: AsylD) entered into force on 20 October 2004 (by modification of the AsylD due to the Government Decree No.278 of 2004, 12 October): Art 40 (2) b.) refers directly on Family Reunification Directive. <li>The Office for Immigration and Nationality issued a Guideline on how to implement the rules on family reunification of recognised refugees by OIN officials (2/2006.sz. Mdszertani tmutat, 11/07/2006). </ul> In brief, Family Reunification Directive is formally is transposed into national law due to alterations of provisions existing on aliens at the moment of accession while asylum rules only five months later. As mentioned above the new Act regulating the entry and stay of foreigner has been adopted by the Hungarian Parliament on 18 December 2006, together with its 'twin', the Act regulating the entry and stay of persons enjoying the freedom of movement and residence. naturally from the point of view of the Family <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#A1"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#A1"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#A1"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#A1"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#A1"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#A1"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#A1"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#A1"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#A1"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#A1"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#A1"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#A1"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#A1"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#A1"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#A1"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#A1"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#A1"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#A1"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#A1"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#D1"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#A1"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#A1"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#A1"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#A1"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="A2">A.2</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Has there been a political or public debate on the implementation of the Directive? If so, please summarize the main issues of the debate.</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td><b>A</b>: In November 2006 the Government submitted two Bills to the Parliament <ul> <li>one on free movement of EEA nationals and family members as transposition of 2004/38/EC Directives (T/1299) and <li>one on entry and residence of foreigners (T/1300) replacing the AlienA. There was no widespread discussion yet, especially since the implementing regulation has not been adopted yet. However, one could expect that family members coming from neighbouring non-EU states would raise discussions. </ul> The parliamentary debate was in fact limited in November-December 2006. There were only three motions related to family unification in Bill (T/1300). Partly in favour of family members of refugees, partly to cut 'liberal' approach to family members of foreign labourers. They have been adopted on 18 December 2006 published in the official journal (Magyar Kzlny) on 5 January 2007 (p. 2 and 35 respectively) and will enter into force on 1 July 2007. This report indicates the changes envisaged by the new acts. However, as the implementing regulations are still in the making and not yet available, many details must remain obscure for the moment being. <br> As the acts have been adopted practically unanimously - enjoying the support of the present opposition as well - no major political debates are to be expected. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#A2"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#A2"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#A2"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#A2"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#A2"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#A2"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#A2"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#A2"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#A2"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#A2"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#A2"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#A2"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#A2"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#A2"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#A2"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#A2"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#A2"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#A2"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#A2"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#A2"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#A2"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#A2"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#A2"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#A2"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="A3">A.3</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: What have been the main changes in the national law or practice due to the Directive. Please indicate for each change whether it improved or deteriorated the legal status of third country nationals and their family members? Did it make the national rules more strict or more liberal?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td><b>A</b>: AlienA and AsylD were modified - partly before accession - just in relation to Family Reunification Directive. Its impact is positive: discretion power of alien policing and refugee authority has been reduced and arbitrary decisions are limited but subjective right for family reunification living together and ban of separation of family members is far from legal practice. <i>(see end of page for meaning of abbreviations)</i>. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#A3"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#A3"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#A3"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#A3"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#A3"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#A3"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#A3"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#A3"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#A3"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#A3"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#A3"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#A3"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#A3"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#A3"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#A3"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#A3"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#A3"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#A3"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#A3"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#A3"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#A3"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#A3"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#A3"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#A3"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="A4">A.4</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Are there already judgments of national courts applying or interpreting the Directive? If so on which issues?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td><b>A</b>: It is not known due to the absence of a data base containing judgements. But we have to indicate two judicial documents: <ol> <li>The Supreme Court's Council of Judges of Public Administrative Law regularly publishes its interpretative opinions. The family reunification and intention for living together in Hungary shall be considered as an acceptable reason in justification of visa and residence authorisation in Hungary with exception of applicant in possession of temporary residence certificate issued for a tolerant migrant staying in Hungary. (AlienD, 10.paragraph) [Source: Brsgi Hatrozatok, 2005/3-4.] <li>The Constitutional Court ceased a constitutional review process related to requirement of family reunification how to be documented the financial self-subsistence of the applicant and how expulsion of aliens living in family to be in harmony with protection of family life. The Constitutional Court rejected to interpret the laws on alien and family due to adoption of new rules meantime (the AlienA and AlienD replaced prior ones in 2002). Although the legal concept on expulsion and family reunification has remained, re-submission of the substantial application has not been occurred. In this way the Constitutional Court cannot make review on rules being out of force. [Source:822/B/2003. AB vgzs] </ol> <ul> <li>Act: AlienD par. 10 </ul> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#A4"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#A4"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#A4"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#A4"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#A4"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#A4"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#A4"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#A4"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#A4"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#A4"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#A4"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#A4"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#A4"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#A4"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#A4"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#A4"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#A4"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#A4"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#A4"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#A4"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#A4"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#A4"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#A4"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#A4"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="A5">A.5</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Did the judgment of the Court of Justice of 27 June 2006 in the case Parliament v. Council (C-540/03) already have any effect on the implementation of the Directive, the national practice or case-law or the legal literature? If so, please specify the effects.</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td><b>A</b>: It is not known. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#A5"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#A5"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#A5"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#A5"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#A5"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#A5"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#A5"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#A5"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#A5"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#A5"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#A5"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#A5"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#A5"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#A5"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#A5"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#A5"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#A5"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#A5"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#A5"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#A5"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#A5"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#A5"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#A5"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#A5"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr color=red></td></tr> <!=PART B =!> <tr> <td colspan=3><font color=blue><a NAME="B">B</a>. Questions on specific provisions</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B1">B.1</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 3(1): <br>How is the clause: <i>who has reasonable prospects of obtaining the right of permanent residence</i> <br> implemented in the national law?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td><b>A</b>: There is no such requirement concerning the sponsor's status in national law. According to the law in force the sponsor is expected to have a residence permit or a settlement permit and 'live in Hungary' (Art. 14 (2)) Upon request of family member for entry, residence or settlement permit the general legal requirements are controlled, and applicant has to meet each of them (ensured housing, income level, health insurance, absence of epidemic sickness and respect for public order) regardless of family reunification. In other words, family reunification and living together with family members is a lawful reason for entry and residence. The amendment of the AlienA in 2005 (in force since 1 January 2006) made it clear that the family member is entitled to the residence permit if the conditions are met. <br> The New Alien Act (NewAlienA) is less clear on the entitlement, it uses a permissive language (may get). <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B1"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B1"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B1"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B1"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B1"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B1"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B1"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B1"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B1"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B1"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B1"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B1"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B1"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B1"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B1"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B1"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B1"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B1"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B1"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B1"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B1"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B1"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B1"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B1"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B2">B.2</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 3(3): <br>Will a third country national also having the nationality of your country be able to rely on the Directive? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td><b>A</b>: <ol> <li>Person possessing Hungarian nationality has to be treated as national regardless of further nationalities. That flows from the Hungarian Nationality Act [LV of 1993] and Law-Decree on Private International Law [No. 13 of 1979]. Implementation of the AlienA is lawful only if the individual uses an identity certificate or document issued by a foreign authority. At the moment as his or her Hungarian nationality is proved, s/he is no longer within the personal scope of the AlienA [(2.par (2)] <li>According to Explanatory Note attached to the AlienA 'Rules on Hungarian nationals' family reunification belongs to the competence of national law, for this reason domestic legislation has manoeuvring room concerning the definition of family member and requirements of unification' - in comparison to the Directive. Formally, the specific provisions define: <ul> <li>who qualifies as a family member and <li>different requirements or exceptions from conditions that are necessary for entry, residence or settlement in general. </ul> Substantially, the specific rules are as to: <ul> <li>are mixed but as to <li>rather advantageous providing benefits for Hungarian national's family members and their unification as follows: </ul> <li>In possession of general conditions right for residence permit is provided to foreigner who is spouse, minor child (including adopted or foster child) of a Hungarian national, to minor child (including adopted or foster child) of spouse of a Hungarian national, to dependent ancestor of Hungarian national or his/her spouse, and to parent who is entitled with parental supervision on minor in possession of Hungarian nationality. [AlienA 14.par (1)] This definition of sponsor's family members is tighter than family member of EEA nationals (in AlienA 2.par (1) e point) but broader then the family definition of a non EEA national sponsor, who can not unite with dependent ancestors. Further on, in absence of self-subsistence and proper housing conditions of the family, the residence permit can be issued for family member if sponsor is a Hungarian national. This benefit depends on discretion power of the authority. [AlienA 14.par (4)] <li>Expiration of residence permit of family member fits to the sponsor's one [AlienA 14/B par] but this validity for a sponsor in possession of Hungarian nationality is endless due to unlimited right to residence in home country. <li>Spouse of a Hungarian national obtains own right for residence if a baby is born from the marriage and foreign parent is entitled to practice parental supervision on Hungarian minor. [AlienA 14/B (3)] It is a benefit because the own, autonomous right for residence of family member requires at least five years cohabitation with the sponsor. <li>Settlement permit can be issued for family member (not as spouse) in possession of visa or residence permit, if s/he has been living at least for one year in the household of the sponsor in possession of Hungarian nationality, or a recognised refugee in Hungary, or if s/he had ever been a Hungarian national or if his/her ancestor had been a Hungarian national. [AlienA 18par (3)]. It is an exception of the normal waiting period that takes three years residence prior submission of the application. It also depends on discretion power of the authority. <li>Family member or spouse of sponsor in possession of settlement permit or Hungarian nationality, who has residence permit and has been living together with the sponsor or the Hungarian national can only be expelled from the country, if his/her further staying in Hungary means defined risk to national security or public order. This benefit is available regardless length of prior residence in Hungary. [AlienA 39.par (1) c point] and makes no difference between the foreign sponsor's and Hungarian national's family member. <li>Although letter of invitation for foreigner can be issued not only by Hungarian national but also by foreigners in possession of residence permit or settlement permit, sociologically nationals can obtain easier its official approval even on invitation of far family members. The letter of invitation is applicable as proof of ensured accommodation and material cover in visa and residence permit authorisation. [AlienA 6.par (1), AlienD 11.par (7)] </ol> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B2"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B2"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B2"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B2"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B2"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B2"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B2"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B2"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B2"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B2"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B2"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B2"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B2"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B2"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B2"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B2"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B2"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B2"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B2"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B2"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B2"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B2"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B2"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B2"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B3">B.3</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 3(3): <br>Are nationals of your country and their third country national family members entitled to the same treatment, to a more privileged treatment or to less favourable treatment as provided in the Directive? Please specify the differences.</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td><b>A</b>: The New AlienA and the EEA Alien Act envisages a privilege of the Hungarian nationals as sponsors, as the definition of 'family member' in relation to the Hungarian national is wider than in relation to the EEA national. Both include the spouse (but not the partner), the descendant under the age of 21 or who is dependent. Differences affect the ancestors: in case of the EEA national (or his/her spouse) the ancestor must be dependent, in case of the Hungarian dependence is irrelevant. [EEA AlienA, 2 par b] Also in case of a minor child if the minor is Hungarian national the parent exercising the custody qualifies as a family member. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B3"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B3"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B3"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B3"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B3"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B3"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B3"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B3"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B3"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B3"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B3"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B3"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B3"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B3"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B3"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B3"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B3"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B3"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B3"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B3"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B3"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B3"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B3"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B3"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B4">B.4</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 4(1): <br>Has the right to family reunification of spouses and minor children been codified in national law? If so, please mention the relevant provisions of national law. </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: It has to be indicated that the definition of a family member in the context of entry and residence covers only the spouse, the dependent descendant, adopted or foster child, the child of the spouse, the parent of a minor and dependent ancestor of the spouse or the sponsor. [AlienA 2.par. (1) e point] Moreover, discretionary power is the general feature of the law on foreigners. Right to family reunification has been codified in migration rules due to UN Convention on the Right of the Child, the Hungarian Code of Family Law and the Family Reunification Directive providing certain guarantees in subjective rights as follows: <ul> <li>Visa for labour or business activity is not required if the foreigner is in possession of visa for staying or residence permit issued on the base of family reunification. [AlienA 12.par. (3)] <li>The child who is born from parents in possession of settlement permit in Hungary has the right to obtain settlement permit. Birth has to be announced at immigration authority [AlienA 18.par. (6), AlienD 38.par. (2)] It means that minor children only have a right to a settlement permit if they are born after their parents were issued with such a permit. If the parents have differing legal positions, the child obtains the more stable standing of his/her parent [AlienD 38.par. (3)] but the settlement permit shall be issued for the child if the parent having custody is in possession of settlement permit [AlienD 38.par. (4)]. In absence of residence permit the settlement permit can be provided for child in case of subsequent authorisation (e.g. announcement was delayed) [AlienD 38.par. (5)] Moreover, the child who is born from to a parent in possession of residence permit in Hungary has right to obtain residence permit. Its validity shall expire when that of the parent. [AlienA 14/C.par.] <li>Foreign family member of a sponsor with Hungarian citizenship has right to obtain residence permit [AlienA 14.par. (1)] It is valid for two years. <li>Foreign family member of sponsor with settlement permit has right to obtain residence permit [AlienA 14.par. (2)] If the sponsor and the family member have concluded the marriage more than two years before the application is submitted, the family member is entitled to settlement permit without any requirement of stay in Hungary. [AlienA 18.par. (3) b] <li>In certain cases expulsion of foreigner can only be ordered if his/her further staying endangers national security or public order. This rule is applicable for foreigners in possession of settlement permit who have been residing continuously for at least five years in Hungary; or who was born in Hungary or arrived as unaccompanied minor and has been living in Hungary in possession of settlement permit, or who is a residence permit holder living in marriage or family life with a Hungarian national or foreigner in possession of settlement permit. [AlienA 39.par. (1)] It is a privilege in residence. <li>The spouse, the minor child or the parent of a minor applicant shall be recognised as a refugee if the sponsor is a refugee and they have submitted application together or at the latest until issuing decision on recognition of the sponsor. It is applicable if there is no reason on exclusion of the family member according to Art 1 (F) of Geneva Convention and the stay and activity of family member means no serious risk for national security or public order. [AsylA 2.par. f. point, 3.par. (2)] <li>Upon request of parent recognised as a refugee his/her minor child born in Hungary shall also be recognised as refugee. [AsylA 3.par. (4)] <li>In case of recognised refugees the refugee's spouse, minor child or his/her parent if the refugee is a minor a visa for family reunification is issued if the application is submitted at the competent consular office of Hungary having jurisdiction according to the family member's permanent residence. The applicant has to be in possession of valid passport, proof of family relation (even a family photo or a local document is acceptable), a photo with a completed format and pay the fee of 50-75. If reunification is requested within 3 months from the recognition of the sponsor, preconditions of housing, subsistence and health insurance of are not to be scrutinised. After this period but within further six months visa can be issued if excuse for delay is accepted by the authority. [AlienA 14/A.par.] In other cases the recognised refugee can only act as a sponsor if (s)he meets the 'normal' requirements as to providing adequate housing, income, health insurance for the unifying family member. <li>In order to unify split family in mass influx spouse, registered partner and dependent minor child of temporary protected person as sponsor can be recognised also as temporary protected person, if the sponsor approves it and exclusion is not applicable against family member residing abroad. Transfer to Hungary of family member obtained temporary (subsidiary) protection in another Member State is also provided upon request of the sponsor. [AsylA 8.par. (2)] </ul> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B4"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B4"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B4"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B4"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B4"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B4"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B4"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B4"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B4"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B4"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B4"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B4"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B4"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B4"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B4"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B4"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B4"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B4"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B4"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B4"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B4"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B4"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B4"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B4"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B5">B.5</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 4(1) and 4(6): (children over 12 or 15 years) <br>Does the national law of your country provide special rules concerning the admission of children aged over 12 or 15 years? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: There is neither provision nor intention to make a difference between children based on their age or integrational potential. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B5"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B5"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B5"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B5"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B5"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B5"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B5"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B5"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B5"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B5"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B5"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B5"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B5"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B5"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B5"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B5"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B5"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B5"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B5"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B5"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B5"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B5"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B5"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B5"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B6">B.6</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: If children over 15 are prevented from applying for family reunification under what conditions are they entitled to reside considering the obligation for Member States second sentence of Article 4(6)? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: - <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B6"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B6"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B6"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B6"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B6"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B6"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B6"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B6"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B6"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B6"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B6"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B6"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B6"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B6"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B6"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B6"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B6"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B6"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B6"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B6"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B6"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B6"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B6"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B6"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B7">B.7</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Is your country barred from using the exceptions in Article 4(1) last sentence and Article 4(6) by the standstill-clauses in those two provisions?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: Migration law has been insensitive for age of immigrants. If legislation intends to outline some difference it uses wider or tighter definition of family members. For instance, spouse, dependent descendant, adopted or foster child of the sponsor, and child of his/her spouse, parent of minor, and dependent ancestor of sponsor or of sponsor's spouse belong to family member in major term [AlienA 2.par. (1) e] unless otherwise is not defined in specific provisions. Further on, autonomous right to residence takes into account child reaching full age during his/her residence on the base of family reunification [AlienA 14/B.par. (5)] or becoming unaccompanied minor. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B7"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B7"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B7"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B7"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B7"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B7"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B7"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B7"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B7"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B7"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B7"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B7"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B7"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B7"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B7"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B7"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B7"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B7"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B7"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B7"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B7"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B7"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B7"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B7"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B8">B.8</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 4(3) (unmarried partners) <br>Has the provision on the admission of unmarried partners been implemented in national law? If so, under what conditions do they have a right to family reunification? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: According to Explanatory Notice made to the AlienA 'family reunification for unmarried partner is not ensured in Act. It is not required by the Directive, and due to absence of control on partnership it would mean a public order risk.' Definition of family members for family reunification does not cover on unmarried partner although registered partnership exists in Hungarian law, and social transfers are available for registered partners. Especially in child and family care system rights of nationals and settled migrants, refugees are equal, so this inconsistency would require further harmonisation. <ul> <li>In practice the letter of invitation and settlement permit can be issued for unmarried partner. We can conclude on formats defined in AlienDM that 'other family relations' beyond the three generation model (sponsor and spouse, ancestor and descendant) are tolerated. Why? Because of sponsor is that who has to provide housing, accommodation and health insurance for relatives and partners. <li>In practice partner of refugees and temporary protected is accepted due to missing documents. Moreover, spouse, unmarried partner and dependent minor of temporary protected person arrived in mass influx can be recognised on the base of family reunification. [AsylA 8.par. (2)] <li>Polygamy violates public order and penal law. <li>In order to unite families split up as a consequence of mass influx, the unmarried partner of a temporary protected person as sponsor can be recognised as temporary protected person if the sponsor approves it, and exclusion is not applicable against his/her. S/he has right to enter and reside in Hungary. Transfer to Hungary of registered partner obtained temporary (subsidiary) protection in another Member State is also provided upon request of the sponsor. [AsylA 8.par. (2)] <li>Expulsion of a family member having a residence permit and living family life together with a Hungarian national or a foreigner in possession of settlement permit can only be ordered if his/her further stay endangers national security or public order. [AlienA 39.par. (1)] This benefit for exceptional expulsion would include registered, unmarried partner, too. The explanatory note to the NewAlienA stresses that 'family reunification of unmarried partner continues to be not available. their cohabitation is only possible on the basis of a residence permit issued for other purposes' (Comments to Articles 19-29) </ul> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B8"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B8"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B8"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B8"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B8"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B8"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B8"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B8"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B8"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B8"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B8"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B8"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B8"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B8"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B8"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B8"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B8"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B8"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B8"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B8"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B8"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B8"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B8"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B8"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B">B.9</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 4(5) (minimum age spouse) <br>Does the national law require a minimum age for the admission of spouses that is higher than 18 years? If so what is the minimum age? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: There is no age limit for spouse. His/her personal right (based on nationality or domicile) defines the minimal age of marriage. Moreover, family reunification as lawful reason of entry and residence is based on documented marriage. A foreign bride/groom can obtain a visa or residence permit as visitor but not as family member for unification. If the couple intends to make marriage in Hungary, the foreigner has to prove the absence of legal obstacle for marriage in accordance with his/her personal (marital) law by using a certificate issued at the embassy or other authority. Without this certificate the registrar shall not make the marriage in Hungary. Up till now abuses in this context have not been known. Polygamy (e.g. divorce is not documented or document not accepted by Hungarian authority) violates public order and Penal Code.<br> Personal right of refugee and settled stateless person is the Hungarian law [Law-Decree No.13 of 1979]. According to Code of Family Law [Act IV of 1952] the age limit for marriage is 16 years, but the bride/groom between 16 and 18 years needs approval to marriage by Guardian Office. If it is missing, marriage can only be made at full age. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B9"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B9"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B9"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B9"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B9"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B9"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B9"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B9"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B9"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B9"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B9"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B9"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B9"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B9"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B9"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B9"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B9"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B9"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B9"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B9"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B9"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B9"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B9"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B9"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B10">B.10</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 5(2) (documents and fees) <br>What kind of documentary evidence has to be presented with a family reunification application? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: Due to absence of specific family reunification process, evidence and fees are required as in visa and residence authorisation. It means proper document certifying family ties and personal status (birth certificate, ID card, passport, marriage certificate or other) [AlienA 14 par.(3)]. AlienD contains only references on personal data without presentation of documents (with exception of valid passport). However, there is a warning at the bottom of the format 'I certify the above written data are genuine and I accept that false or invalid data shall conclude the rejection of my application' and it has to be signed by the applicant. <ul> <li> </ul> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B10"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B10"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B10"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B10"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B10"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B10"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B10"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B10"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B10"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B10"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B10"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B10"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B10"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B10"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B10"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B10"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B10"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B10"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B10"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B10"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B10"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B10"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B10"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B10"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B11">B.11</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Does the applicant have to pay any fees and, if so, what is the (total) amount of those fees?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: As consolidated AlienJD proves visa and alien policing fees do not depend on purpose of the entry or residence. It depends on how many times foreigner can entry (multiple visa) or length of expiry of the document. The minimal fee is 20, the maximal is about 75, the total sum of fees would be 100 per person. Family members of the EEA national pay no fees [AlienJD 3.par.(3)a] or other aliens obtaining personal exception for evaluated poor social conditions, or on the base of international (bilateral) treaty or obtaining scholarship from the state also enjoy exception [AlienJD 3.par. (3)b,c,d]. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B11"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B11"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B11"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B11"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B11"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B11"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B11"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B11"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B11"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B11"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B11"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B11"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B11"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B11"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B11"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B11"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B11"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B11"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B11"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B11"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B11"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B11"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B11"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B11"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B12">B.12</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 5(3) (place of application) <br>May an application be submitted when the family members are already residing in the Member State? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: Family reunification in theory is based on valid visa (or letter of invitation) issued for living together in a family. Residence permit and settlement permit requires valid visa, sufficient life conditions and residence in fact. It means residence permit can be submitted without valid or specific visa only in exceptional cases: recognised refugee's spouse and unaccompanied minor [AlienA 14/A par.(1)]. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B12"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B12"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B12"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B12"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B12"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B12"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B12"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B12"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B12"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B12"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B12"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B12"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B12"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B12"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B12"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B12"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B12"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B12"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B12"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B12"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B12"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B12"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B12"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B12"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B13">B.13</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 5(4) (length of the procedure) <br>Is there any time limit for the decision on the application by the administration? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: The general administrative procedure takes 30 days are applicable in visa and residence permit proceedings. [AlienA 16.par.(1)] Application for staying visa is decided within 60 days [AlienD 14.par.(1)] and settlement permit within 120 days [AlienD 33.par.]. Length of confirmation by the Security Service means further 45-60 days [AlienD 32.par. (2)]. In practice authority of settlement permit requires about one year in the Immigration authority. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B13"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B13"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B13"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B13"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B13"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B13"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B13"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B13"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B13"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B13"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B13"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B13"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B13"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B13"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B13"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B13"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B13"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B13"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B13"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B13"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B13"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B13"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B13"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B13"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B14">B.14</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 5(5) (interest of the child) <br>How is the provision that Member States 'shall have due regard to the best interests of minor children' implemented in national law? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: <ul> <li>The child who is born to parents in possession of settlement permit in Hungary has right to obtain settlement permit. Birth has to be announced at immigration authority [AlienA 18.par. (6), AlienD 38.par. (2)] If the parents have different legal positions, the child obtains the more stable standing of his/her parent [AlienD 38.par. (3)]. If only one parent exercises custody of the child, entitlement to residence will assimilate to that of the custody-exercising parent.[AlienD 38.par. (4)]. Even in absence of residence permit of the parent, the settlement permit can be provided for child if it could have been issued but was not for the lack of registering the child's birth with the immigration authority. [AlienD 38.par. (5)] Further on, child who is born from parent in possession of residence permit in Hungary has right to obtain residence permit. Its validity shall fit to one of parent's permit. [AlienA 14/C.par.] <li>Rules in favour of unaccompanied minors are incorporated in a separate point. <li>Residence permit issued on the base of family reunification for parent of a minor with Hungarian nationality shall be withdrawn if his/her parental right to supervision ceases. S/he can reside in Hungary if s/he meets alone all requirements of residence permit authorisation with exception of visa for staying. [AlienA 14/B.par. (4)] <li>Foreign minor obtaining residence permit on the base of family reunification becomes full age, s/he can stay in Hungary if s/he has been residing here and possessing permit for at least five years, or s/he meets alone all requirements of residence permit authorisation with exception of visa for staying. [AlienA 14/B.par. (5)] <li>Prolongation of residence permit or issuing of residence permit can be refused only if foreign minor who was born in Hungary has become an unaccompanied minor (for instance due to death of his/her parent) and his/her care is provided by guardianship in the country of origin or in other receiving country. Naturally, his/her residence would be provided on another legal basis (e.g. acquisition of Hungarian citizenship). [AlienA 17.par. (7)] <li>The settlement permit can be withdrawn if the applicant's custody right ceased within 4 years from issuing of settlement permit, or relevant conditions for authorisation has deeply changed within 5 years from issuing of settlement permit. [AlienA 23.par. (1) a., b., c. points] It is based on the rule that immigration authority controls existing conditions that are required for settlement permit in every five years - together with Security Service that provides an expert opinion on the migrant. [AlienA 20.par. (5)] <li>Immigration authority shall withdraw the settlement permit of the minor if the residence permit of the foreign parent having custody has been withdrawn unless proper care of the child is provided by the other parent or by state in Hungary. [AlienA 23.par. (2)] <li>The settlement permit of the foreigner who is under expulsion order or entry or residence ban shall be withdrawn. [AlienA 23.par. (2)]. But expulsion of the foreigner in certain cases can only be ordered if his/her further stay endangers national security or public order. This higher threshold is applicable towards a foreigner, who was born in Hungary, or s/he arrived as unaccompanied minor and has been living in Hungary in possession of settlement permit, or who is a residence permit holder living in family life with a Hungarian national or foreigner in possession of settlement permit. [AlienA 39.par. (1)] <li>Minister responsible immigration affairs is entitled to issue exceptional settlement permit although all preconditions are not met by the applicant just taking into account individual and family circumstances. According to OIN information this entitlement is applicable in favour of minors without violation of public interest [AlienA 18.par. (7)-(8)] <li>Immigration authority shall provide without delay accommodation for dependent or minor child of foreigner whose detention is ordered. [AlienA 55.par. (2)] There is similar task defined in Criminal Procedural Code, the Act on the Protection of the Child and Guardian Authority and Code on Family Law. <li>A guardian shall be appointed for an unaccompanied minor as applicant and the refugee status determination procedure shall be managed without delay. A psychologist as an expert can be involved, in particular into hearings, and medical check is applicable for clarification of age with consent of minor applicant. Absence of his/her consent should not mean automatic refusal of asylum application. [AsylA 34.par.] <li>Authorised place of residence shall be designated for unaccompanied minor at a child care institute, refugee centre or private shelter with more remote family member on the basis of written contract with him/her on accommodation, care and interest of minor. [AlienD 61.par. (3)] <li>The Guideline of the OIN on family reunification of refugees (11/07/2006) underlines how to protect interest of unaccompanied minor as protection seeker or refugee in family reunification process: a professional guardian shall be appointed by the Guardian Authority. S/he has to investigate the individual's environment and conditions, interest of child and family members. </ul> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B14"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B14"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B14"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B14"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B14"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B14"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B14"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B14"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B14"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B14"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B14"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B14"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B14"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B14"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B14"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B14"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B14"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B14"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B14"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B14"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B14"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B14"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B14"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B14"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B15">B.15</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 6 (public policy exception) <br>How has the public policy and public security exception been implemented and defined in the national law? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: According to Explanatory Notice attached to the AlienA 'family reunification must not jeopardize public policy, public security or public health, thus the Member State is entitled to refuse the applicant for family unification' and makes reference to the Council Directive 64/221/EEC of 25 February 1964 on the co-ordination of special measures concerning the movement and residence of foreign nationals which are justified on grounds of public policy, public security or public health. This closure is implemented through restrictions that are more restrictive that the same notions in the context of EU citizens' movement. <ul> <li>Absence of endangering public order and security by the foreigner is required equally in authorisation of letter of invitation, visa, residence permit, settlement permit, its renewing or asylum proceedings. As a corollary, settlement permit must be denied if the settlement of the foreigner jeopardizes the national security, the public order (public policy) or public health. [AlianA, 21 par. (1) e] Differently from that it can (but need not) be denied if the settlement jeopardised the interests of state. Its possible meaning is not identified. Moreover, the immigration authority checks whether the requirements for settlement permit are still available in five years. [AlienA 21.par. (2), 20.par. (5)] For this reason National Security Office is entitled to issue expert opinion on application of each, and ban of entry, residence and expulsion is based on various level of risk concerning the foreigner's stay. Refusal of application may be based on the NSO opinion beyond the designated reasons for rejection such as endangering national security, public health or order, or settlement permit seeker has no clean criminal record or s/he is under criminal proceedings or arrest warrant. [AlienA 19.par. (4) and 21.par. e. point, AsylD 23.par.] Expulsion by the immigration authority is forbidden to order against foreigner whose offence was not additionally punished to be expelled by criminal court. [AlienA 39.par. (4)]. It is a threshold for severity of committed crime. <li>The exceptional entitlement of the minister to issue settlement permit for family reunification or family life reasons must not endanger public interest. [AlienA 18.par. (8)] The precise meaning of public interest (as a term different both from 'national interest' or 'public order' has not been identified.. <li>A close family member should not be recognised on the basis of family reunification as a refugee if - inter alia - his/her staying or activity violates interests of national security or seriously endangers the public order. Temporary protection shall be withdrawn if foreigner's stay or activity violates interest of national security. In this case protection of sponsor's family member is also automatically ceased. [AsylA 3.par. (3), 10.par. (4), 11.par.] <li>The New AlienA has a three layer system (shorter than 3 months, /Schengen/ visa, longer than 3 month, and settlement permit. Whereas in the context of the short term visa it refers to the Schengen Codex (562/2006/EC regulation) par. 5 e, in the long term visa context it establishes 'national' rules. par. 18 of the New AlianA envisages compulsory denial of longer than three months residence permit in case the applicant is under an entry or stay ban or jeopardizes the public policy (public security), the national security or the interests of public health. [NewAlienA 13.par. (1) h]. After the full application of the Schengen acquis the Schengen alert prescribing entry and stay ban will be added [NewAlienA 13.par. (1) i], read in light of the transition provision of [NewAlienA par. 109 (1)]. As to the settlement permit, compulsory denial conditions are narrower (assuming that the applicant had lived three years, except for the eased cases, like family reunification). Denial of the permit is only compulsory (in the public policy context) if settlement jeopardizes the national security of the Hungarian Republic or the person is subject to an entry or residence ban or is expelled. </ul> Entry and residence ban may be ordered by the immigration authority for a great number of reasons, among others in case 'the entry and stay [of the foreigner] violates or jeopardizes national security, public security or public order (public policy)' or 'public health'. [NewAlienA 43.par. (1) f and g]. However, third country nationals having at least a residence permit who live in marriage or conduct family life with another third country national, who has settlement permit may only be expelled if their continued residence would seriously violate national security, public security or public order (public policy)' [NewAlienA 45.par. (2) b]. When deciding on expulsion the authority is called upon to consider elements similar to (but not identical with) those listed in par. 17 of the Family reunification Directive. [NewAlienA 45 (1) a) - d)]. The criteria are: severity of the threat to national security, public security, public order or public health; length of previous stay; age, family circumstances of the person to be expelled and the consequences of the expulsion to her/his family members; his/her bonds to the Hungarian Republic and lack of contacts with the country of origin. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B15"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B15"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B15"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B15"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B15"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B15"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B15"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B15"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B15"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B15"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B15"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B15"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B15"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B15"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B15"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B15"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B15"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B15"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B15"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B15"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B15"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B15"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B15"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B15"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B16">B.16</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: What are the similarities and differences compared to the definitions of the same notions in the context of free movement of EU citizens?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: - <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B16"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B16"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B16"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B16"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B16"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B16"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B16"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B16"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B16"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B16"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B16"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B16"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B16"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B16"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B16"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B16"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B16"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B16"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B16"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B16"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B16"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B16"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B16"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B16"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B17">B.17</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 7(1)(a) and (c)(income and housing) <br>How is the income requirement specified in the national law? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: Its minimal amount is not regulated, and there is only a vague provision calling for proper, available and lawful financial cover on self-subsistence and maintenance of all dependent family members by the sponsor (breadwinner) [AlienA 5.par. (1)]. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B17"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B17"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B17"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B17"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B17"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B17"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B17"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B17"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B17"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B17"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B17"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B17"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B17"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B17"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B17"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B17"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B17"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B17"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B17"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B17"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B17"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B17"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B17"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B17"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B18">B.18</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: What is the level of net monthly income required (in euros)?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: In practice net income per capita has to reach the lawful minimal monthly wage ( 200 per capita/month) but assets or saving or property can also be required unless the monthly income can reach the national average level ( 450 per capita/month). We have to add that the family member of a Hungarian national does not have to prove its income level in case of family reunification. A published court case refers on how document on current account and right to alimony by breadwinner may prove ensured maintenance of the applicant in settlement authorisation. (EBH 2005/1364).[AlienA 22.par., AlienD 30.par.] <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B18"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B18"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B18"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B18"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B18"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B18"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B18"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B18"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B18"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B18"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B18"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B18"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B18"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B18"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B18"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B18"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B18"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B18"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B18"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B18"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B18"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B18"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B18"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B18"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B19">B.19</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Is there a housing requirement in force, and if so, what is the minimum surface of the accommodation (in square meters)?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: There is only formal requirement of housing in settlement authorisation. It means 6 sqm per capita of bedroom is the minimal size for each inhabitant under the same roof concerned in settlement permit. [AlienD 30.par.(5)] Otherwise 'housing conditions must be adequate' and there is no precise metrical or quality preconditons. The AlienA also refers to adequate housing which can be met by owning property or proving access to tenancy or else. [AlienA 5.par. (2)] <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B19"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B19"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B19"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B19"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B19"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B19"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B19"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B19"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B19"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B19"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B19"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B19"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B19"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B19"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B19"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B19"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B19"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B19"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B19"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B19"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B19"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B19"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B19"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B19"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B20">B.20</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 7(2) (integration measures) <br>Are family members required to comply with integration measures? If so, do they have to comply before or after admission and what are they actually required to do (follow a course, pass a test, etc.) </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: There is neither formal requirement nor substantial criteria of integration of migrants into Hungarian society and economy. Self-subsistence is the major principle, and measures for assisted integration are under preparation. The existing provisions have no direct relation to integration. <ul> <li>Refugees including family members are entitled to financial living support up to two years from the moment of recognition as a refugee in need. Precondition is successful participation in the free Hungarian language course or passing a basic exam on Hungarian language The fee of examination and 360 hours of language training is also financed (reimbursed) by the OIN. [AsylS 16., 17.par. (2)] <li>Participation in language training is not required as precondition for obtaining financial living support, if the refugee/family member is over 60 years old, or medical certificate proves his/her personal physical or mental incapability for language knowledge. [AsylS 17.par. (3)] These persons are not supposed to learn Hungarian. <li>An integration programme would be offered for refugee together with family members taking into account existing system of allowances, supports and rights. It intends to educate language, social habits and labour standards for refugees in co-operation with local municipals, NGOs and refugee centres. [AsylS 30/A.par.] Up till now these programmes have not been institutionalised except for pilot projects made by EQUAL or Twining Projects. While the refugee centres set up in 1989 are obliged by law to assist integration of refugees [AsylA 27.par.] the method of integration has not been developed yet. </ul> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B20"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B20"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B20"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B20"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B20"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B20"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B20"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B20"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B20"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B20"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B20"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B20"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B20"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B20"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B20"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B20"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B20"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B20"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B20"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B20"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B20"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B20"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B20"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B20"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B21">B.21</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Are there any positive or negative sanctions (privileges, subsidies, fines, residence rights or other) attached to the integration measures?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: The New AlienA does not envisage rules on integration. However the explanatory node has a reference according to which integration of long term residents (those with a settlement permit) will be enabled by area specific (education, social support, etc.) legislation. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B21"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B21"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B21"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B21"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B21"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B21"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B21"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B21"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B21"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B21"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B21"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B21"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B21"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B21"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B21"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B21"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B21"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B21"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B21"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B21"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B21"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B21"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B21"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B21"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B22">B.22</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Does the national law distinguish between the concepts 'integration conditions' and 'integration measures' (compare Article 4(1) last indent and 7(2))?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: - <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B22"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B22"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B22"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B22"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B22"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B22"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B22"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B22"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B22"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B22"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B22"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B22"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B22"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B22"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B22"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B22"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B22"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B22"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B22"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B22"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B22"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B22"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B22"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B22"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B23">B.23</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 8 (waiting period) <br>Is there any waiting period before the family reunification application can be filed? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>:<ul> <li>There is no waiting period formally in visa and residence permit authorisation. I.e. any third country national with a valid residence permit may become sponsor - if all the other conditions for family reunification are met. If the sponsor possesses a residence or settlement permit, visa or residence application can be immediately submitted if the sponsor can provide all the requirements for family reunification (maintenance, housing, health insurance, absence of public order risk). <li>Settlement permit can be issued (1) for family member (not as spouse) in possession of visa or residence permit, if s/he has been living in the household of the third country national sponsor possessing a settlement permit at least for one. This is shorter than the usual waiting period that takes three years residence prior submission of the application; (2) for spouse in possession of visa or residence permit, if marriage with sponsor had been concluded at least two years before submission. [AlienA 18.par. (3)] In that case no prior residence in Hungary by the spouse is required. However, in order to have a settlement permit the sponsor will have to have lived in Hungary for three years unless she or he belongs to a privileged category (foreign national with Hungarian ancestors e.g.) Issuance of the settlement permit depends on the discretionary power of the authority. De facto waiting period can be created by the requirements for applying family: for instance, the sponsor has to ensure 6 m2 living-room per capita in the apartment. [AlienD 30.par. (5)] <li>The family member of the refugee sponsor has to submit an application for visa for the purpose of family reunification within three months from the sponsor's recognition. It is a reverse waiting period. In this case preconditions of housing, subsistence and health insurance of applicant are not to be scrutinised. After this three months period application for visa based on family reunification can be submitted within further six months by excuse and proving requirements of housing, subsistence and health insurance ensured by the sponsor. After this (extended) nine months period an application can only be submitted under the general rules. [AlienA 14/A.par. (2)] </ul> The New AlienA does not repeat the three month clause in respect of the family member of the refugee, but it remains to be seen what the implementing decree will do. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B23"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B23"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B23"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B23"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B23"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B23"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B23"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B23"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B23"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B23"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B23"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B23"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B23"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B23"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B23"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B23"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B23"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B23"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B23"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B23"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B23"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B23"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B23"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B23"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B24">B.24</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 9(2) (privileges for refugees) <br>Which privileges granted by the Articles 10-12 are in the national law limited to family relationship that predate the entry of the refugees? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: As to par. 4 para 1 third subpara of the Family Reunification Directive is not applied at all, no exemption is needed. As to the broader family definition, (10par. (2) and (3) of the Family reunification Directive) they have been transposed as par. 14A (1) c) of the AlienA. par. 11 of the Directive appears as par. 14A (3) of the same Act. Waiver of the accommodation and sickness insurance requirement and of the maintenance requirement are granted in the present legislation if the unification request is submitted within three months for the recognition - as discussed above. Subsidiary protection has not been incorporated into Hungarian law, temporarily protected persons may act as sponsors in respect of spouses, unmarried partners and dependent minor children. [AsylA par. 8 (2). Precondition is that the family was dispersed as a consequence of the conditions of mass flight. <br> The Guideline of the OIN (11/07/2006) underlines <ul> <li>the lawful family reunification is possible exclusively for recognised refugee as sponsor [AlienA 14/A.par.]. It means that persons not belonging to family in the tight circle of spouse and dependent minor of both or each member of the couple or parent/guardian of unaccompanied minor can obtain visa for family reunification exceptionally on the base of individual evaluation (e.g. dependent, old and ill parent of the sponsor). <li>family member has to submit his/her visa application at competent consular office of Hungary depending on permanent residing place. The applicant has to be in possession of valid passport, proof of family relation (even a family photo or a local document is acceptable), a photo with a completed format and paid fee of 50-75. Within 3 months of recognition preconditions of housing, subsistence and health insurance of applicant is not to be scrutinised <li>applicant has to prove to be accommodated, and subsistence and health care is provided by the sponsor, if recognition of the sponsor as refugee had happened more than three months but not than 9 months before submission. Applicant has to excuse of his/her delay. Out of this maximal period unification request is rejected. </ul> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B24"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B24"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B24"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B24"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B24"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B24"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B24"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B24"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B24"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B24"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B24"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B24"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B24"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B24"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B24"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B24"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B24"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B24"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B24"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B24"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B24"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B24"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B24"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B24"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B25">B.25</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Do other protected persons than Convention refugees benefit from the provisions of Chapter V of this Directive?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: The New AlienA makes it clear that residence visa or residence permit 'may be issued' also to the dependent parent and to the sibling or other relative in the ascending or descending line. In case of siblings and broader relatives the precondition is that they are unable to take care of themselves due to health reasons. [ 19 par. (4) a] and b)] <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B25"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B25"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B25"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B25"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B25"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B25"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B25"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B25"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B25"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B25"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B25"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B25"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B25"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B25"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B25"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B25"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B25"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B25"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B25"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B25"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B25"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B25"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B25"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B25"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B26">B.26</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 10(3) (family members of unaccompanied minors) <br>Are the parents, legal guardians or other family members of a refugee who is an unaccompanied minor, entitled to a residence permit under national law? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: Family member of unaccompanied minor recognised as refugees enjoy privileges. <ul> <li>Visa and residence permit may be issued to the parent or the guardian of the unaccompanied minor who is a refugee It is excluded if the parent has requested refugee status or is a refugee. For the purpose of acquiring the permit family ties can be proved in any credible way. Thus family reunification with a recognised refugee shall not be rejected for absence of document, certificate on marital, personal status. [AlienA 14/A.par. (1) c. and (3)] <li>Visa application of parent or guardian of an unaccompanied minor shall be decided without delay but within five days if the purpose is to accompany the minor home. (Assume voluntary return of the refugee minor) [AlienD 14.par. (2)] <li>The Guideline of the OIN (11/07/2006) underlines unaccompanied minor as recognised refugee or protection seeker needs assistance in seeking family members abroad. For this reason OIN and Hungarian Red Cross (its Searching Service) co-operates in order to contact members of split family and to unify the family. </ul> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B26"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B26"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B26"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B26"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B26"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B26"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B26"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B26"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B26"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B26"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B26"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B26"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B26"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B26"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B26"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B26"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B26"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B26"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B26"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B26"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B26"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B26"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B26"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B26"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B27">B.27</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 11 (lack of documents) <br>Which rules on alternatives to official documents in case of lack of official documents proving the family relationship are provided for in the national law? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: Documents proving family relationship are regulated in law of personal right of the foreign applicant. Private international law has to develop alternative or substitute standards of missing documents but local laws and authenticity of evidence should be known by Hungarian consular office at which the application for visa shall be submitted. There is only one specific provision as follows: <ul> <li>visa application is rejected if authenticity, factuality of attached document or credibility of applicant is doubtful [AlienD 14.par. (5)] It includes a fact-finding and evaluation work by the consular and visa issuing authority. <li>family relationship between refugee and visa applicant can be proved in any credible way. Family reunification to refugee shall not be rejected exclusively on the basis of absence of document. [AlienA 14/A.par. (3)] It is applied in residence permit procedure, too. In practice, proof of family relation would be a family photo of the couple. If visa is issued, the Hungarian document will serve in residence and other documentation process. </ul> The New AlienA literally repeats the present rule according to which 'family reunification can not be denied for the sole reason that an instrument proving the family relationship is not available.' (See: New AlienA 19 par. (3) ) <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B27"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B27"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B27"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B27"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B27"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B27"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B27"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B27"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B27"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B27"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B27"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B27"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B27"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B27"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B27"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B27"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B27"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B27"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B27"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B27"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B27"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B27"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B27"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B27"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B28">B.28</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 12 (exemption from requirements) <br>From which requirements for family reunification, mentioned in Article 7 or Article 8, are refugees or their family members explicitly exempted by national law? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: If the application is submitted within three months from the recognition, all exemptions apply. The New AlianA does not contain that rule, but it might appear in the planned new asylum act, which is in the (very early, non-public) drafting phase. Alternatively the implementing rule of the new AlienA may contain that exemption. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B28"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B28"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B28"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B28"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B28"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B28"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B28"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B28"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B28"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B28"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B28"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B28"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B28"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B28"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B28"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B28"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B28"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B28"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B28"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B28"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B28"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B28"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B28"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B28"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B29">B.29</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 13(1) (visa facilitation) <br>How has the obligation to grant third country family members 'every facility for obtaining the required visas' been implemented in national law?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: Facilitation of visa issuing is not really provided in legislation due to wide discretionary power of the processing authority and limited decision making power of consular offices in visa authorisation [AlienD 8.par. (2)]. <ul> <li>Application for a residence visa for family reunification exceptionally can be submitted not at the domicile of the applicant (meaning the consular office competent for that domicile) but at another (closer) consular office or - exceptionally - in the territory of Hungary. The reason for the exceptional circumstance shall be certified. One full age member of the family can submit application instead of each applicant in concern. [AlienD 10.par., 13.par. (1)(3)] <li>Visa can be issued and inserted into not-recognised travel document exceptionally.[No.2. Appendix, 17.par. (5) of AlienD] <li>A foreigner in possession of a visa or residence permit issued on the basis of family reunification does not need a specific labour or business visa. [AlienA 10.par. (3)] This is an exception from the prohibition of changing the purpose of stay without obtaining an appropriate (new) visa. </ul> The New AlienA in its par. 9 (2) envisages that short term visa may be issued for humanitarian reasons even to persons not meeting the conditions of Article 5 para (1) subpara a) c) and e) of the Schengen Codex. Art 13 par. (2) envisages an exemption from the long term visa requirements in case of 'urgent humanitarian reasons' - whatever that will mean. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B29"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B29"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B29"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B29"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B29"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B29"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B29"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B29"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B29"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B29"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B29"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B29"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B29"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B29"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B29"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B29"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B29"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B29"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B29"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B29"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B29"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B29"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B29"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B29"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B30">B.30</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 14 (equal treatment) <br>How has the right of admitted family members to 'access to employment and self-employment in the same way as the sponsor' been implemented in national law? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: According to the Act V of 1990 lawfully residing foreigners with a registered address in Hungary are entitled to become self-employed or individual entrepreneurs by obtaining the 'Entrepreneur Certificate' at local Registration Office undertaking all taxation and social insurance obligations. Naturally, if the planned service or entrepreneurship requires specific qualification or authorisation (e.g. to open a workshop) by law, the foreigner just as any Hungarian national has to meet these requirements. It is applicable for family members of sponsor, too. [3-4.par.] <br> The Act IV of 1991 and Ministerial Decree No.8 of 1999, 10 November of the (then) Minister of Social and Family Affairs regulate how foreigners can be employed for remunerated work in Hungary. There are three categories: <ul> <li>refugees, beneficiaries of temporary protection and regular migrants in possession of settlement permit have the right to be employed without a labour permit. If the spouse or the descendent of the sponsor has this status, it is the best position. [Act 7.par.] <li>the spouse or widow/er of a refugee, a beneficiary of temporary protection or of a regular migrant possessing settlement permit, obtains labour permit without investigation of local labour market supply if s/he has been living together with the sponsor in Hungary at least for one year. It means an almost automatic authorisation. The same provision shall be implemented concerning spouse and descendent of the migrant worker having been employed in Hungary for at least 8 years, if they have been living together in Hungary for at least 5 years. [Decree 6.par. g, h. points] <li>labour permit is necessary on the basis of a really bureaucratic investigation of labour market needs and supply (economic test) for all other cases. [Decree 1-2.par.] </ul> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B30"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B30"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B30"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B30"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B30"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B30"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B30"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B30"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B30"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B30"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B30"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B30"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B30"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B30"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B30"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B30"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B30"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B30"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B30"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B30"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B30"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B30"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B30"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B30"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B31">B.31</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Did your country make use of the exception to that equal treatment allowed under Article 14(2) of the Directive? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: Summing up, family reunification has not appeared in labour or entrepreneurship rules directly, while the '12 months rule' is inserted into the provisions. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B31"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B31"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B31"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B31"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B31"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B31"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B31"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B31"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B31"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B31"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B31"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B31"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B31"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B31"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B31"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B31"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B31"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B31"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B31"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B31"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B31"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B31"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B31"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B31"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B32">B.32</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 15 (autonomous residence permit) <br>After how many years are spouses, unmarried partners and children entitled to an autonomous residence permit under national law? What other conditions are they required to fulfil in order to obtain such a permit? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: The Five years rule: <ul> <li>Divorce within five years after issuing the residence permit on the basis of family reunification means that the foreign spouse has to leave the country unless a child was born from the marriage and the divorced foreign spouse has custody of the minor, or s/he meets alone all requirements of residence permit authorisation with exception of visa for staying. [AlienA 14/B.par. (3)] <li>If the foreign minor obtaining residence permit on the basis of family reunification becomes full age, s/he can continue to stay in Hungary if s/he had been legally residing in Hungary for at least five years on the basis of the family reunification, or s/he meets alone all requirements of residence permit authorisation. [AlienA 14/B.par. (5)] <li>Settlement permit can be withdrawn if relevant conditions for authorisation have fundamentally changed within 5 years from issuing of settlement permit. [AlienA 23.par. (1) b. point]. Family reunification is not directly mentioned but housing or self-subsistence of sponsor would change the legal evaluation of family members' residence. </ul> Other aspects of family relations: widowhood, parental right to supervision of minor, divorce: <ul> <li>A widow/er can continue to reside in Hungary if s/he meets all requirements of residence permit authorisation. (She does not need to possess a residence visa at that moment) [AlienA 14/B.par. (2)] <li>Residence permit issued on the basis of family reunification for the parent of a minor with Hungarian nationality shall be withdrawn if his/her parental right to supervision ceases. S/he can continue to reside in Hungary if s/he meets all the requirements of residence permit authorisation. (Again, it is with the exception of the residence visa). [AlienA 14/B.par. (4)] As (a) and (b) cases prove autonomous residence permit is available without the required 'five years rule' if the applicant can meet all requirements of residence as another ordinary foreigner. <li>Prolongation of residence permit or issuing of residence permit can be refused only if foreign minor who was born in Hungary has become an unaccompanied minor (for instance due to death of his/her parent) and his/her care is provided by guardianship in the country of origin or in another country. Naturally, his/her residence may be provided on another legal basis (e.g. acquisition of Hungarian citizenship). [AlienA 17.par. (7)] <li>The settlement permit may be withdrawn if the applicant has used false fact or data in the authorisation process, or his/her marriage ceased - not including death of spouse - within 3 years from issuing the settlement permit on the basis of family reunification, or his/her parental supervision ceased within 4 years from issuing the settlement permit. [AlienA 23.par. a., c] points] <li>The immigration authority shall withdraw the settlement permit of the minor if the residence permit of the foreign parent having custody has been withdrawn unless proper care of him/her is provided by other parent or by state in Hungary. [AlienA 23.par. (2)] </ul> The New AlienA changes the rules on the consequences on the settlement permit of divorce: the spouse of the divorced sponsor only loses the right to stay if the divorce occurs within three years (and not five) from the granting of the settlement permit. [New AlienA 37par. (1) b] The new general rule is, that the family member is entitled to continue to stay even in lack of another ground if five years have passed since the first issue of a residence permit for family reunification or in case of the death of the sponsor or the recognised refugee if the conditions for residence are secured. [New AlienA 20par. (7) ] . <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B32"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B32"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B32"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B32"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B32"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B32"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B32"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B32"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B32"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B32"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B32"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B32"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B32"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B32"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B32"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B32"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B32"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B32"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B32"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B32"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B32"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B32"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B32"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B32"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B33">B.33</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Under what conditions can an autonomous residence permit be obtained before the period of time normally required under national law?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: - <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B33"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B33"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B33"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B33"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B33"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B33"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B33"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B33"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B33"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B33"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B33"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B33"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B33"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B33"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B33"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B33"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B33"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B33"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B33"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B33"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B33"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B33"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B33"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B33"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B34">B.34</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 16(1)(a) (resources) <br>Is the income of family members taken into account for the calculation of the sufficient resources at the time of the renewal of the permit? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: - <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B34"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B34"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B34"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B34"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B34"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B34"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B34"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B34"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B34"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B34"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B34"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B34"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B34"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B34"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B34"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B34"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B34"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B34"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B34"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B34"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B34"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B34"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B34"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B34"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B35">B.35</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 16(1)(b) (real family relationship) <br>Does the national law allow for refusal or withdrawal of a residence permit on the ground that the family member does no longer live in a real marital or family relationship? If so, which criteria have to be fulfilled under national law? Is the ground applicable to the relationship between parents and minor children? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: The granting of a residence permit or its extension may be denied, if the family relationship has been established only in order to achieve the granting of the permit based on family reunification. [AlienA 17 par. (1) e]. <br> Issued residence permit becomes invalid by law if data included in it have changed. [AlienD 27.par. (1) b. point] <br> The foreigner obtaining residence permit on the basis of family reunification is obliged to inform on final judgement of divorce or death his/her spouse within 30 days the immigration authority attaching the proper document. [AlienD 24.par.] <br> Settlement permit based on family reunification shall be based on genuine family relations and common family household living together. [AlienD 31.par. (1)] Residence permit issued on the basis of family reunification for parent of a minor with Hungarian nationality shall be withdrawn if his/her custodial right ceases. S/he can reside in Hungary if s/he meets alone all requirements of residence permit authorisation with exception of visa for staying. [AlienA 14/B.par. (4)] <br> The immigration authority controls existing conditions that are required for settlement permit in every five years - together with Security Service that provides an expert opinion concerning the migrant. [AlienA 20.par. (5)] <p> The New AlienA reaffirms the rule on denial of granting or extending of the residence permit if the family relationship has been established only in order to achieve the grant or extension, but the language has changed, moving form the discretionary (may) to the compulsory (must). [New AlienA 18 par. (1) d) ] <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B35"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B35"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B35"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B35"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B35"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B35"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B35"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B35"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B35"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B35"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B35"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B35"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B35"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B35"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B35"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B35"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B35"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B35"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B35"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B35"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B35"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B35"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B35"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B35"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B36">B.36</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 16(4) (marriage of convenience) <br>Does the national law contain provisions on fraud or on marriages or partnerships of conveniences? Is so are the definitions, checks and practices in conformity with Article 16(4)? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: Residence and entry ban as well as expulsion of the foreigner may be ordered [AlienA 32.par. (2) d., h.points, 23.par. (1)] against the person: <ul> <li>who communicated false data or false facts to the authorities taking action with a view to obtaining the right of entry or stay; <li>who applies for the permit to enter or stay with a view to living with his/her spouse but has failed to live with the spouse or it may be presumed that he/she provided pecuniary benefit in order to be married (marriage of convenience) </ul> As already quoted above if the family relationship has been established only in order to achieve the granting of the permit based on family reunification the residence permit or its extension may be denied according to the law in force [AlienA 17 par. (1) e] and will have to be denied when the New AlienA enters into force. The term 'family relationship' is broader than marriage and can be understood to include unmarried partners as well. <br> Marriages of convenience in practice are very rare. There are much more problems with genuine family contacts being undermined by rigid entry and residence authorisation. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B36"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B36"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B36"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B36"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B36"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B36"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B36"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B36"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B36"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B36"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B36"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B36"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B36"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B36"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B36"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B36"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B36"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B36"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B36"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B36"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B36"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B36"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B36"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B36"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B37">B.37</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 17 (relevant considerations) <br>How has this clause, requiring that certain specific elements are to be taken into consideration in the decision making on residence permits and removal orders, been implemented in the national law? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: Burden of proof is usually on the sponsor and the family member (genuine family relation, marital status, dependent position, self-subsistence, property, income, public health screening). The authority proves facts related to public order (e.g. 5 years rule in data basis of personal file, registration of addresses, identity card, criminal record). There are no specific rules on methods, or techniques of fact finding procedure beyond the provisions on Code of Public Administrative Procedure and rather meagre rules on public order in the AlienA and AsylA. The Ombudsman's investigations and NGO complaints relate to the simplified decision making practice. According to the prevailing view the discretionary power of the immigration and asylum authority is extremely wide. <p> The New AlienA has a provision explicitly dealing with the factors which have to be considered in the process of expulsion. As already quoted in the context of Article 6 when deciding on expulsion the authority is called upon to consider elements similar to (but not identical with) those listed in par. 17 of the Family reunification Directive. [NewAlienA 45 (1) a - d]. The criteria are: severity of the threat to national security, public security, public order or public health; length of previous stay; age, family circumstances of the person to be expelled and the consequences of the expulsion to her/his family members; his/her bonds to the Hungarian Republic and lack of contacts with the country of origin. 46 par. of the New AlienA provides that the (reasoning of the) decision on expulsion must address the considered aspects. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B37"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B37"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B37"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B37"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B37"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B37"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B37"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B37"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B37"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B37"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B37"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B37"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B37"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B37"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B37"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B37"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B37"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B37"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B37"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B37"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B37"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B37"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B37"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B37"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B38">B.38</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 18 (judicial review) <br>Are the sponsor and his family members entitled to have a negative decision reviewed by a court or independent tribunal? If so, please specify the relevant provisions in the national law and the scope of the judicial review (full review, review on legality or marginal control only)? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: The available legal remedies are the following: <ul> <li>in case of a negative decision on entry visa appeal or review is excluded. However judicial review is applicable against a rejected application for residence visa [AlienA 8.par. (4)] . It is a review on legality. <li>There is administrative appeal against a negative decision on residence permit or its renewal or on its withdrawal. It has to be submitted orally immediately when the decision is communicated or within three days in written form. A further judicial review can be initiated against final administrative decision. [AlienA 17.par. (5)] It means a review on legality, County/Capital Court may order the repetition of administrative procedure. <li>There is no appeal against the entry or residence ban. [AlienA 33.par. (5)]. <li>There is no administrative appeal against the expulsion but judicial review is provided by the County/Capital Court including personal hearing upon request of the foreigner. It covers the legality of the administrative decision and the court is entitled to modify the decision of the immigration authority, to annul it or to remand the case for a repeated procedure. The Court's decision shall be issued within 15 days and is final, no further remedy is available. [AlienA 42.par. (1)] <li>As a general rule the Code of Public Administration Procedure (Act CXL of 2004) permits an administrative appeal and judicial review of other negative decisions of immigration authority. </ul> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B38"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B38"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B38"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B38"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B38"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B38"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B38"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B38"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B38"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B38"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B38"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B38"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B38"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B38"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B38"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B38"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B38"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B38"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B38"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B38"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B38"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B38"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B38"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B38"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="B39">B.39</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Article 18 (judicial review) <br>Is (publicly funded) legal aid available for an appeal against a decision to refuse fam-ily reunification or to withdraw the residence permit of a family member? </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: Free legal aid, financed by state budget is available. According to Act LXXX of 2003 all persons in need (whose monthly income is not exceeding the minimal lawful pension and the person does not command over substantive assets) are entitled to use professional, registered legal advisers without charge. Their income and assets are subject to control. But refugees, temporarily protected persons, asylum applicants, and applicant for visa, residence or settlement permits whose ancestor is or was a Hungarian national shall be considered as persons in need without further investigation. [Act 5.par. (2)] <p> In practical terms free legal aid is frequently provided by the NGO sector maintaining layers networks available for certain affected groups like refugees and asylum seekers <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#B39"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#B39"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#B39"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#B39"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#B39"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#B39"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#B39"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#B39"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#B39"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#B39"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#B39"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#B39"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#B39"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#B39"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#B39"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#B39"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#B39"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#B39"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#B39"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#B39"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#B39"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#B39"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#B39"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#B39"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr color=red></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="C">C.</a> Final questions</td> </tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="C1">C.1</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: What are in your view the main strengths and weaknesses of the Directive? Which provisions of the Directive should in your opinion be amended?</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: The main strengths: <ul> <li>its existence and imperative language. <li>The obligation to weigh factors, mentioned in article 17 </ul> The main weakness: <ul> <li>Family reunification ought to be based on sui generis criteria, procedure and assistance relying on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, , Art 8 of ECHR and 1951 Geneva Convention. The Family reunification Directive should have a clear relation to the Directive on long-term residents and to the Qualifications Directive dealing with refugee status and subsidiary protection. <li>It would be necessary to refer to the CIEC agreements. <li>Common rules on family reunification applicable to a national as sponsor have to be defined setting up a clear framework of non-discrimination and lawful differentiation. </ul> To be amended: <ul> <li>Art 3 (3) and 4 (1) third subpara. <li>considerations may arise as to Art 3 (5) </ul> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#C1"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#C1"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#C1"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#C1"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#C1"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#C1"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#C1"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#C1"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#C1"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#C1"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#C1"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#C1"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#C1"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#C1"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#C1"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#C1"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#C1"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#C1"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#C1"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#C1"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#C1"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#C1"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#C1"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#C1"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="C2">C.2</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Please add any other interesting information on the Directive or its implementation in your country that might be relevant for our study.</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: There has been a moderated professional discussion concerning the family reunification without direct reference on Directive. (Literature, NGO's, Ombudsman, UN Comittee on the rights of the CHild, UNHCR) <p> <b>Literature</b> is too general and authors have no specific survey on Directive and its national practice. <ol> <li>MISI Lszl: Tanulmny a magn-s csaldi let unis vdelmnek normarendszerrl s esetjogrl, klns tekintettel a csald-s gyermeki jogokra [EC law in book and practice on family and private life] 49-62.old. www.kriminalexpo.hu/uoe/2006-01-vegso.pdf <li>FARKAS Lilla: A csaldi lethez val jog s a szemlyek szabad mozgsa. [Right to family life and free movemenet of persons in the EU] EU-tanulmnyok 3. kt. MeH Budapest, 2004. 579-615. <li>GRD Andrs: Az Emberi Jogok Eurpai Brsgnak esetjoga.[Case law of the ECtHR] Csald, tulajdon. 1999. 71-80. <li>Az Emberi Jogok Eurpai Egyezmnye 8. cikke: a magn- s csaldi lethez val jog. Szerk. Szab Gyz - Nagy Gbor.[Article 8 of the ECHR and its legal practice] Emberi Jogi Fzetek. A Brsgi Hatrozatok Mellklete 4/97:1-77. <li>Az Eurpai Kzssgek Brsgnak gyakorlata a szocilis biztonsg terletn. [1. kt.] A mdostott s naprakssz tett 1408/71/EGK rendelet. Lezrva: 2003. jn. [2. kt.] A mdostott s naprakssz tett 574/72/EGK rendelet. Lezrva: 2003. jn. [3. kt.] Jogesetek. Lezrva: 2002. szept. Szerk. cs Vera - Lukcs va. Kzrem. Mihlffy Angla - Torda Ildik. [Social security in the case law of the ECJ] Kiad. a Foglalkoztatsi s Munkagyi Minisztrium - Egszsggyi, Szocilis s Csaldgyi Minisztrium. Bp. Folpress Kft. ny. 2003. 214, [2], 327, 250, [2] p. <li>SZEIBERT Orsolya: Az Eurpai Uni jogalkotsa a csaldjog terletn. A Brsszel II. rendelet szemlyi s trgyi hatlya. A hzassg felbontsra vonatkoz gyekben irnyad jogrl s joghatsgrl szl Zld Knyv (Rma II.). [Family law and marriage - Rome II] Eurpai Jog 6/2005:32-40. <li>Migrci s Eurpai Uni. Szerk. Lukcs va - Kirly Mikls. [Migration and the EU] Kiad. a Szocilis s Csaldgyi Minisztrium. Bp. AduPrint K. 2001. 477 p. <li>FARKAS Lilla: Segt kz? Magyar jogvdk s a strasbourgi mechanizmus.[Legal aid by NGOs at the ECtHR] Fundamentum. Az emberi jogok folyirata 4/2000:121-127. <li>Strasbourg s a magyar joggyakorlat. Bn Tams, Magyar Gbor, Talldi Zoltn, Weller Mnika s Farkas Lilla rsa. [Cases from Hungary at ECtHR] Fundamentum. Az emberi jogok folyirata 1/2005:45-69. </ol> <b>NGO's</b> <ul> <li>Hungarian Helsinki Committee represents cases at courts. (www.helsinki.hu regularly makes news, statements are available). Hungarian Association for Migrants (www.menedek.hu ) provides social and psychological assistance for separated children, family members through various programmes. Both organisations publish cases protecting family life of migrants living in Hungary and launch procedure at the Ombudsman Office. The common reasons of the rejected family reunification or separation of the family members are the public policy, absence of lawful income and public health. Further on, the Hungarian Helsinki Committee issued a Practical Manual on family reunification of internationally protected persons (May 2006). It criticised: <ul> <li>why residence of sponsor in a refugee centre is not acceptable as properly provided accommodation, housing, subsistence and health insurance for applying members in family reunification. Within 3-9 months after recognition there is not too much chance for refugee to ensure own housing and self-subsistence. A more flexible interpretation of rules is urged; <li>why joining family members are excluded from recognition on the base of family relations; <li>why family members in possession of visa issued for family reunification is re-evaluated in residence permit authorisation. The visa "D" is valid for 365 days, and residence permit can be issued in its possession while all requirements of housing, subsistence and health insurance of the applicant have to be met; <li>why family reunification of refugee is tucked a maximal 9 months time frame after recognition of the sponsor [AlienA 14/A.par.]. In case of a split family this period is not proper to find contacts and documents. </ul> <li>Habeas Corpus NGO submitted an application for constitutional review of AlienA (www.origo.hu 17 May 2004) because it discriminate homosexual couples in long-term residence authorisation. The complained case is coming from a Hungarian man whose male couple was from Poland. They can obtain neither a simplified nor a standard family reunification authorisation of residence, and unmarried partners are not treated as in marriage by Hungarian law. The Constitutional Court has not yet decided. </ul> <b>Ombudsman</b><br> The Ombudsman's investigations confirm the rigidity of AlienA and AlienD. Moreover, incoherent rules of them with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child were also criticised. <ul> <li>He proposed to the Minister of the Interior and of Justice to submit a modification of the AlienA. Accordingly the Art.14 shall be completed with entitlement of the migration authority to issue residence permit for Hungarian national minor's parent in order to live together in Hungary. [OBH 1037/2004., 14 December 2004] The proposal was taken up by Act XLVI of 2005 amending the AlienA, and Art 16 was amended accordingly. <li>He proposed for the Office for Immigration and Nationality to withdraw own final decision (No.106-ij-2205/1/2005, issued on 2 February 2005) and to direct the first instance authority (a) to evaluate in merit the minor's application for family reunification as basis of residence permit taking into account the Public Administration Proceedings Code [Art 16 (3)], <li>to implement Art 9 (1) of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in harmony with Art 26 (1) of the Public Administration Proceedings Code during the repeated procedure. It requires a more precise fact-finding work by the proceeding officials. [OBH 2248/2005, 13 June 2005] The OIN issued residence permit for the mother of the new-born baby but on different legal basis as the ombudsman offered. </ul> The UN Committee on the rights of the Child adopted its concluding observations to the CRC/C/70/Add. 25 Report of Hungary (Art 44 of the Convention) at its 1120th meeting on 27 January 2006. The Committee proposed to Hungary to "improve the possibilities for family reunification by refraining from the application of financial conditions. Furthermore, the Committee recommends that the State party take into account general comment No. 6 (2005) in the design of legislation and policies relating to the treatment of unaccompanied and separated children outside their country of origin." [CRC/C/HUN/CO/2] <p> <b>UNHCR</b><br> UNHCR Regional Representation in Hungary issued a document on "Legal and Practical Considerations Concerning Family Reunification and Visa Issues Affecting Refugees and Persons Authorised to Stay in Hungary" (28 October 2005). It proposes changes in practice and legislation as follows. The government should consider: <ul> <li>waiving the obligation on recognised refugees to meet the qualification criteria contained in Article 14 (1) of the AlienA; <li>a broader definition of eligible family members in line with the UNHCR Guidelines on family Reunification of 1983 in any event, at the very least, in line with the European Union Council Directive on the Right to Family Reunification of 22nd September 2003; <li>allowing persons authorised to stay in Hungary, under the complementary protection regime, to have immediate access to the right to family reunification upon status determination in the same manner as refugees; <li>ensuring that as a matter of practice in cases where the principal applicant is given refugee status or the status of person authorised to stay in Hungary, the rest of the family should have the right to opt for the same derivative legal status without prejudice to their right to apply for refugee status or complementary protection individually based on own claim. The family members should also have access to the same socio-economic and other rights as the principal applicant; <li>having a one stop, single procedure for family reunification. This would ensure that the application for family reunification is submitted to, processed and approved by one central authority in a single procedure; <li>issuing joining family members of recognised refugees with an appropriate visa that denotes their special circumstance (e.g. "Humanitarian Visas" or "Family Reunification Visas"); <li>reviewing current procedures to ensure that fair and efficient procedures for processing family reunification applications in an expeditious manner are in place. The objective of such a review should also include the need to make family unity, and not the qualification criteria contained in Article 14 (1) of the Aliens Act, the central focus of such procedures; <li>making family reunification procedures more fair and efficient, to ensure that recognised refugees, at the point that refugee status is granted, are provided with written and oral information on their right to family reunification and the procedures which need to be followed for them to effectively exercise and realise this right, including applicable qualification waivers, details concerning travel documents and visa applications, opportunities for financial assistance for travel costs and integration assistance for the reuniting family. To this end, the authorities may wish to consider introducing an information package on family reunification, including a public place poster and leaflet which could be given to individual principal applicants at the same time that a positive refugee status determination decision is rendered; <li>introducing a simple and "user friendly" family reunification procedure, which can easily be initiated by the recognised refugee by way of completing a standardised form which whenever necessary could be complemented by a personal interview; <li>exploring modalities in which it would be able to assist the applicant refugee to meet the costs of the reunification either through a loan or a grant. Initially, the costs of this could be met under the European Refugee Fund (ERF) which can be administered directly by a government entity or a partner NGO with the requisite family reunification experience; <li>issuing an administrative directive informing that when deciding on family reunification, the absence of documentary proof of the formal validity of a marriage or of the filiation of children should not per se be considered as an impediment; <li>ensuring that recognised refugees are aware that a negative decision on an application for family reunification should clearly and fully state the specific reasons for the rejection of the application and the evidence which was relied on. It should also provide information on the principal applicant's right of appeal, any time-limits and the provisions of the appeal procedure; <li>ensuring that family reunification takes place within the shortest possible time from the time an application is made. Applications from or regarding separated children should be prioritised, with regard to the principle of the best interest of the child, in view of the potential harm caused by long periods of separation from their parents. </ul> Number of applications for visa:<p> <table border=1 cellpadding=5> <tr> <td>Purpose of <b>visa</b> for staying</td> <th>2002</th> <th>2003</th> <th>2004</th> <th>2005</th> <th>2006</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Labour</td> <td>7660</td> <td>26421</td> <td>30957</td> <td>19374</td> <td>23604</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Studying</td> <td>5095</td> <td>6742</td> <td>4721</td> <td>3659</td> <td>3911</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Visiting</td> <td>1040</td> <td>2026</td> <td>3518</td> <td>1876</td> <td>1509</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Entrepreneurship</td> <td>856</td> <td>1340</td> <td>1823</td> <td>906</td> <td>891</td> </tr> <tr> <th>Family Reunification</th> <th>218</th> <th>1283</th> <th>1914</th> <th>1232</th> <th>1805</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Seasonal Labour</td> <td>0</td> <td>796</td> <td>779</td> <td>34</td> <td>34</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Official</td> <td>216</td> <td>230</td> <td>121</td> <td>171</td> <td>103</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Medical, curing</td> <td>15</td> <td>20</td> <td>37</td> <td>21</td> <td>16</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other</td> <td>2282</td> <td>3676</td> <td>4263</td> <td>3438</td> <td>2647</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>Subtotal <i>VISA</i></td> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>17382</td> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>42534</td> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>48133</td> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>30711</td> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>34520</td> </tr> </table><p> Number of applications for resident permit:<p> <table border=1 cellpadding=5> <tr> <td>Purpose of <b>residence permit</b></td> <th>2002</th> <th>2003</th> <th>2004</th> <th>2005</th> <th>2006</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Labour</td> <td>18186</td> <td>20347</td> <td>24902</td> <td>29958</td> <td>26746</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Studying</td> <td>5436</td> <td>5559</td> <td>4855</td> <td>4693</td> <td>5297</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Visiting</td> <td>1483</td> <td>1391</td> <td>1923</td> <td>1916</td> <td>1450</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Entrepreneurship</td> <td>4310</td> <td>3206</td> <td>2232</td> <td>658</td> <td>479</td> </tr> <tr> <th>Family Reunification</th> <th>4850</th> <th>5773</th> <th>6486</th> <th>7884</th> <th>8446</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Official</td> <td>207</td> <td>193</td> <td>79</td> <td>105</td> <td>109</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Medical, curing</td> <td>55</td> <td>57</td> <td>61</td> <td>68</td> <td>40</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Other</td> <td>2798</td> <td>3011</td> <td>3994</td> <td>1384</td> <td>4000</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>Subtotal <i>RESIDENCE PERMIT</i></td> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>37151</td> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>39564</td> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>44532</td> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>46666</td> <td bgcolor=lightgrey>46587</td> </tr> </table> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#C2"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#C2"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#C2"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#C2"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#C2"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#C2"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#C2"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#C2"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#C2"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#C2"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#C2"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#C2"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#C2"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#C2"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#C2"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#C2"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#C2"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#C2"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#C2"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#C2"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#C2"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#C2"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#C2"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#C2"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="C3">C.3</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: Please send us copies of the relevant laws and regulations, of any legal or other publications on the Directive or of judgments of national courts applying or interpreting the Directive, if possible in electronic form.</td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr></td></tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td colspan=2><b>A</b>: No documents are annexed. <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#C3"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#C3"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#C3"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#C3"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#C3"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#C3"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#C3"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#C3"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#C3"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#C3"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#C3"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#C3"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#C3"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#C3"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#C3"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#C3"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#C3"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#C3"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#C3"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#C3"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#C3"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#C3"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#C3"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#C3"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr color=red></td></tr> <!=PART D =!> <tr> <td colspan=3><font color=blue><a NAME="D">D. Table</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font color=blue><a NAME="D1">D.1</a></td> <td colspan=3><a href=#top title="top of page">top</a> <b>Q</b>: This table refers only to mandatory provisions of the Directive. <br>Please choose for each article one of the four alternative labels: <ul> <li>correct transposition <li>no transposition <li>violation of the Directive <li>unclear </ul> If you choose the label 'violation' or 'unclear', please add a footnote with a short explanation. <p></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2><i>answer Hungary</i></td> <td> <table border=1> <thead> <tr><td width=120><b>Articles of the <br>Directive</b></td><td width=200><b>Opinion about Transposition</b></td><td><b>Explanation</b></td></tr> </thead> <tr><td>5(5)</td><td><font color=orange><b>unclear</td> <td>In absence of sui generis family reunification process, the best interest of the child is taken into account if there is specific reference to it in the given context (e.g. visa, residence permit through exceptions) or the child is unaccompanied. However, due regard to be paid to the best interest of the child is not a clear procedural requirement. </td></tr> <tr><td>10(3)(a)</td><td><font color=orange><b>unclear</td> <td>Visa and residence permit may be issued. The discretionary power of the authority is not a proper guarantee for his/her first-degree relatives in the direct ascending line[AlienA 14/A.par., AlienD 4.par. (2)] </td></tr> <tr><td>11</td><td><font color=green><b>correct transposition</td> <td> </td></tr> <tr><td>13(1)</td><td><font color=orange><b>unclear</td> <td>Certain (technical) facilitation is granted. Due to the absence of a separate family reunification procedure, visa authorisation for family members mean the partial transposition Moreover, visa for a refugee's family member can be issued only upon proposal of the refugee authority [AlienD 11.par. (8), 13-14.par.] </td></tr> <tr><td>14(1)</td><td><font color=orange><b>unclear</td> <td>Transposition in part. Employment is accessed freely only for refugees and migrants in possession of settlement permit. If the family member obtains only residence permit, a waiting period is more than 12 months. </td></tr> <tr><td>15</td><td><font color=orange><b>unclear</td> <td>Transposition in part. Registered partnership is not included. Further on, 5 year residence for autonomous right for residence is provided but a long-term migrant status (settlement permit) can be obtained after 1-2-3 year period of residence thus prolongation of settlement permit is more relevant. Self-subsistence is the key requirement towards the family member, and s/he obtains residence or settlement permit without the Directive. Residence without self-subsistence can be allowed as exception. </td></tr> <tr><td>16(1)(b)</td><td><font color=green><b>correct transposition</td> <td> </td></tr> <tr><td>17</td><td><font color=red><b>violation</td> <td>Only existence of formal family relations in Hungary are investigated but other aspects of personality and privacy, contacts with community are neither regulated, nor implemented. Ombudsman's investigations and complaints from NGOs are coming from these facts. The New AlienA contains some provisions on expulsion decision making but not on other aspects. </td></tr> <tr><td>18</td><td><font color=orange><b>unclear</td> <td>Transposition in part. There is no decision on family reunification, consequently a specific appeal and judicial review is missing. Appeal and/or judicial review is provided in connection with most of the negative decisions that are relevant to family members </td></tr> </table><p> <hr></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan=2></td> <td><b>A</b>nswers on <i>this</i> question by <i>other</I> countries: <br> <a href="../Austria/#D1"> AUS</a> <a href="../Belgium/#D1"> BEL</a> <a href="../Cyprus/#D1"> CYP</a> <a href="../CzechRepublic/#D1"> CZE</a> <a href="../Denmark/#D1"> DEN</a> <a href="../Estonia/#D1"> EST</a> <a href="../Finland/#D1"> FIN</a> <a href="../France/#D1"> FRA</a> <a href="../Germany/#D1"> GFR</a> <a href="../Greece/#D1"> GRE</a> HUN <a href="../Ireland/#D1"> IRE</a> <a href="../Italy/#D1"> ITA</a> <a href="../Latvia/#D1"> LAT</a> <a href="../Lithuania/#D1"> LIT</a> <a href="../Luxembourg/#D1"> LUX</a> <a href="../Malta/#D1"> MAL</a> <a href="../Netherlands/#D1"> NET</a> <a href="../Poland/#D1"> POL</a> <a href="../Portugal/#D1"> POR</a> <a href="../Slovakia/#D1"> SVK</a> <a href="../Slovenia/#D1"> SVN</a> <a href="../Spain/#D1"> SPA</a> <a href="../Sweden/#D1"> SWE</a> <a href="../UnitedKingdom/#D1"> GBR</a> </td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=4><hr color=red></td></tr> <tr><td colspan=2> <td>List of Abbreviations <ul> <li>AlienA: Act XXXIX of 2001 on the entry and stay of foreigners in Hungary <li>New AlienA: Act II of 2007 on the entry and stay of third country nationals <li>EEA AlienA: Act I of 2007 on the entry and stay of persons enjoying the freedom of movement and residence <li>AlienD: Government Decree No. 170/2001 (IX. 26.) On the Implementation of Act XXXIX of 2001 on the Entry and Stay of Foreigners <li>AlienMD: Ministerial Decree on execution of the AlienA and AlienD No. 25 of 2001, 21 November <li>AlienJD: Ministerial Joint Decree on fees in visa and residence authorisation No.35 of 2001, 22 December <li>AsylA: Act CXXXIX of 1997 on asylum law <li>AsylD: Government Decree on procedural rules of asylum and documents issued for temporary protected persons No.172 of 2001, 26 September <li>AsylS: Government Decree on supports and allowances for refugees and applicants No.25 of 1998, 18 February </ul> </td> </tr> </table> </body> </html>